Example: Create a New Data Source from a Manifold Image Server

Manifold image server modules are snippets of code which use the Manifold Image Server Interface (ISI) to automatically fetch image tiles from popular image servers like Bing, Wikimapia, Yahoo!, Google Maps, Yandex and many others. Image servers can provide street maps, overhead satellite imagery, combinations of streets and satellite imagery and other data as well.

 

Many image server modules are already built into Manifold.   In this example we will connect to Microsoft's Bing server to generate a hybrid dynamic satellite image that is overlaid with text labels.

 

See File - Create - New Data Source for instructions on connecting to many different types of web servers, including custom web server connection strings.

 

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We launch Manifold and choose File - Create - New Data Source.  In the dialog we enter a more descriptive name, Bing Hybrid, and for the Type we choose Web Server: imageserver.   That will automatically load the supplementary box just below the Type box with a list of all the various image servers we have installed on this machine, many of which are built into Manifold.   

 

We scroll through the list (a typically long list on this particular machine) and choose Bing Maps Hybrid.  That will load the Source box with the connection string this image server utilizes.   We press Create Data Source.

 

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A new data source appears in our project.   We can expand it and double click onto the image to open it and see it displays a typical Bing satellite image that has had labels added.  Microsoft refers to the satellite image with text labels and, zoomed in closer, streets, as a hybrid presentation, since it contains elements of a typical Bing Streets as well as Bing Satellite displays.

 

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We can zoom into the image by right-clicking and dragging a zoom box.

 

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As we zoom into the image Manifold automatically fetches more tiles from the Bing server.   The Bing server automatically provides those tiles and also adjusts the content as we zoom further in.   Like many image servers, the Bing server has been set up to provide more detail as views zoom further into the scene.

 

Using right-click and drag we can zoom further into the image and more details will appear.  We will zoom far into Italy into the region around Rome.

 

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As we zoom into the region around Rome, Bing will begin showing roads, such as the ring highway around Rome, overlaid on the satellite view.

 

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In the illustration above, we have zoomed far enough into Rome to see the bend of the Tiber river with the green star-shaped park of the Castel Sant'Angelo above the river and the boundaries of the Vatican to the left.   The park is captioned Parco Adriano because what is known as the fortress of Castel Sant'Angelo is really Hadian's mausoleum, positioned on the opposite side of the Tiber not far from the now-ruined mausoleum of Augustus.

 

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We can pan the display a bit to see the round circle of the mausoleum of Augustus, just below the caption for the Campo Marzio, the Field of Mars, in early Roman times a field for practising military maneuvers.

 

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Zooming in we get a better view of Augustus' Mausoleum, with the building housing the Ara Pacis, the "Alter of Peace," to the left.   One of the most magnificent remnants of

 

Manifold image server modules are highly useful because they can provide georeferenced imagery from almost any type of web server, including commercial sources like Bing.  Such commercial services are often far faster than WMS or similar servers run by government organizations or by private groups.   

 

Image servers can also connect to various "open" mapping servers and can be pre-configured by their authors for specially desired features, such as requesting formatting from the server or requesting specialized content of interest, such as maps that show public transportation or terrain elevation of interest to people undertaking journeys on bicycles.

Variations

Image servers run by various organizations often will utilize data from yet other organizations or may provide their own data using the same protocol.   For example, the opentopomap.org group based in Germany provides topographic maps using OSM (Open Street Map) data and using OSM protocols.   Therefore, the same imageserver module built into Manifold that works for OSM also works for opentopomap if we change the URL used for the source to point to the opentopomap server instead of the OSM server.

 

We right-click into the Project pane and choose New Data Source.

 

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In the New Data Source dialog for the Type we choose Web Server: imageserver and choose the OpenStreet Maps Base image server.   We change the default Name to Opentopomap so we know this data source is not OSM.   Next, we will edit the Source string to replace the OSM URL with the correct opentopomap.org URL.

 

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We use a URL of http://tile.opentopomap.org/{zoom}/{x}/{y}.png.    Press Create Data Source to create the new data source.

 

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The new data source appears in the Project pane under the name we gave it.   The small, black graphic of a lock that has been added to the yellow cylinder icon for the data source indicates the data source is read-only.

 

When we open the data source we see that the names used inside are still those assigned by the imageserver module we used, for OpenStreet Maps.  We double-click open the image, and then we Alt-click the title bar to undock the image window.

 

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Pressing Zoom to Fit we see a typical image server display. Depending on how loaded the opentopomap server it may take a few seconds to fill in the display.  Success!

 

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Zooming in closer, into the regions surrounding the Alps, we see that our small hack did indeed work: providing the opentopomap.org URL to the OSM image server correctly generates opentopomap displays.  The choice of colors from this server is a bit garish for our tastes, but hey, it's free!

 

Because image servers are dynamic, easy to add to a project and require zero effort to style the maps and images displayed,  they can be a great way to provide background layers in maps.   

Notes

Credits - The use of the opentopomap.org URL with the OSM imageserver was first suggested by James Kelly in the georeference.org forum for Manifold users.   Thank you, James!

 

Internet changes - Providers of image servers come and go and often change their policies from free to paid, set limits on their services, change their URLs or protocols or otherwise alter what once was offered.  The URLs above, for example, for Bing and for opentopomap.org worked at the time this topic was written.   As with all things having to do with an ever-changing web, they might require adjustment in the future.

 

Collections of Web Servers - Check the Product Downloads page for pre-packaged project files that Manifold publishes in Release 9 / Viewer .map format which contain collections of dozens of popular web servers data sources.

 

Custom Setting for Web Servers:  Some web servers, notably TMS servers, use embedded command tokens.  Use Manifold's custom setting to connect to those.   See the File - Create - New Data Source topic for how to do that.

Augustus and the Ara Pacis

The image server illustration showing Rome in the topic above captures one of the most fascinating and least-visited monuments in Rome.

 

After almost sixty years of internal warfare, Gaius Julius Caesar had defeated all rivals to become Dictator for Life in 45 BC, ruling the entire Roman Empire until his assassination a year later in 44 BC.   His young  great-nephew and adopted son, Gaius Octavius, born 63 BC, was one of the contenders for power in the chaos and civil wars that followed the assassination of Julius Caesar.  In 30 BC at the age of only thirty three, after slaughtering all rivals and former partners, Octavius became sole ruler of the entire Roman Empire.   He was declared Augustus, "the August," by the Senate in 27 BC.  

 

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He is seen above, approximately aged thirty six, in a bust on display at the Capitoline Museum in Rome.    Augustus Caesar established "the Principate," the rule of Rome by emperors    He ruled for forty years, with over 150 known busts having survived.  As emperor, Augustus preferred a highly idealized style in his busts, so early busts like the one above, which are not yet so idealized, provide a better sense of his true appearance.  The long years of peace under Augustus, an effective and personally restrained ruler, cemented the power of Rome.  Late in life, Augustus boasted he had found Rome a city of bricks and had left it a city of marble.

 

 

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The Ara Pacis Augustae, the "Altar of Augustan Peace" and almost universally known as the Ara Pacis, is a large, open-air, marble altar surrounded by marble walls covered with continuous friezes of relief sculpture.   It was commissioned by the Senate in 13 BC to celebrate Augustus' return to Rome from lengthy and successful military campaigns in Gaul and Spain.   Pieces of the altar were discovered in the late sixteenth century, it was not until the 1930's that the Italian government mounted a massive effort to excavate the entire altar from underneath existing, modern buildings.  The altar was then reassembled where it now stands, approximately a kilometer from the original location.

 

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Originally brightly colored, as was most sculpture in antiquity, the altar presents religious processions and elaborate decorations.   It is noted for the numerous sculptures of historical personalities who participated in the establishment of the Principate, converting Rome from a republic into a monarchy ruled by an absolute emperor.  Although it is one of the best preserved large monuments from Rome, many tourists miss seeing it when visiting Rome.

 

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Above is the Ara Pacis frieze showing three figures who established the next generation of emperors.   At left with his head hooded by a fold of his toga, stands Marcus Agrippa, a commoner who became the close friend, son-in-law and right-hand man of Augustus Caesar.   Agippa became a successful general, an administrator, and a master builder of aqueducts, baths, temples and other public buildings.    Agrippa built the Maison Carrée in Nîmes, France, as shown in the Notes to the Example: Create Maps topic.

 

Agrippa wrote on geography and created one of the earliest charts of the Empire.  He established the length of his own foot as the Roman Foot, an official unit of measure, in turn defining the Roman mile as 5000 units the length of Agrippa's foot.

 

The identity of the child holding Agrippa's robe is a matter of speculation.  In the center of the frieze is a woman who is either Julia, Augustus' licentious daughter by his first marriage, or Livia, his scheming and overbearing second wife of fifty one years.   The figure in the middle at right is Tiberius, Augustus' stepson, who succeeded Augustus as the next emperor.

 

After the early death of her first husband, Julia was married to Agrippa, twenty five years her senior, in a marriage arranged to bind Agrippa within Augustus' immediate family.  She bore five children with Agrippa, including the mother of the future emperor Caligula, the grandmother-in-law of the emperor Claudius and the great-grandmother of Nero.  

 

After Agrippa's early death at age 51, Julia was married to her step-brother Tiberius, who she betrayed in an endless series of affairs, ultimately being divorced and exiled by Augustus, who despite his deep love for his daughter could not allow such infidelity in his immediate family.  Julia died of starvation while in captivity after Tiberius became emperor, exacting his revenge on his former wife for her infidelity.

 

A talented general, Tiberius became a gloomy, isolated, reclusive and vengeful emperor, hating his domineering mother, Livia, who had outlived Augustus by many years.   He abandoned Rome to live in secluded depravity on the island of Capri for over ten years at the end of his reign.   Tiberius was succeeded as emperor by the infamous Caligula, the grandson of Julia and Agrippa.    

 

See Also

File - Create - New Data Source - an absolutely key topic for connecting to many thousands of different web servers.

 

Web Servers

 

Example: Spectacular Images and Data from Web Servers - A must see topic providing a gallery of views illustrating how Manifold can use web servers such as imageservers and other free resources to provide a seemingly endless selection of spectacular background maps, satellite images and GIS data with nearly zero effort.

 

Example: An Imageserver Tutorial - An extensive tutorial showing step by step how to add new data sources that are imageservers, how to show them as layers in a map, how to create a new drawing that matches the projection of the map and how to trace over what is seen in an imageserver layer to create an area object in the drawing.

 

Example: Create a New Data Source from a MAP File - Create a new data source from an existing Manifold .map project file.   This is the classic way to nest projects, one calling another, to create libraries of data and projects.   Access to nested projects has effectively zero performance loss and the links within projects take up effectively zero space so we can create huge constellations of data at our fingertips.

 

Example: Create a Data Source within an Existing Data Source - When a data source is writable, for example, if the data source is a Manifold .map file, we can work within that data source as if it were at the top level of our project.   For example, we can create a new data source that is nested within the existing data source.   This example shows how.

 

Example: Create and Use New Data Source using an MDB Database - This example Illustrates the step-by-step creation of a new data source using an .mdb file database, followed by use of SQL.  Although now deprecated in favor of the more current Access Database Engine formats, .mdb files are ubiquitous in the Microsoft world, one of the more popular file formats in which file databases are encountered.  

 

Example: Modify GPKG Geometry with SQL then Add Drawing - This topic provides a "Hello, World" example that shows a simple, but typical, task involving spatial data.  We will take a country-sized data set in GeoPackage (GPKG) format and change all areas in the data to the boundary lines for those areas and then save those boundary lines as a new table.  We add a spatial index to the table and create a new drawing to visualize the new table.

 

Example: Trace an Area in a Map over an Image Background - In a map with a drawing layer above an image layer (served dynamically by an imageserver), create an area object in the drawing by tracing over the outlines of something seen in the image layer below

 

Example: Style Applied to an Image Server Image - Because the Edit - Style dialog simply changes the way an image is displayed and not the data, it can operate on read-only data served by various web servers such as WMS REST servers.    In this example we look at every detail of creating a data source using a WMS REST  server and then manipulating the appearance of the display with Style.  We will connect to a WMS server that provides LiDAR data in various forms, including as terrain elevation.