A system using **Transverse
Mercator** projections to map the world into numerous standard
zones that are six degrees wide. The standard Manifold Gauss-Kruger projection
is also known as the **Pulkovo 1942 Gauss-Kruger**
projection. A similar Gauss-Kruger projection is implemented as a national
grids projection for Germany under the names **Germany
Gauss-Kruger Zone ****n**** (DHDN)** with * n*
from 1 to 5 for

Americans can best understand the Gauss Kruger system by thinking of
it as a version of the **Universal
Transverse Mercator** (UTM) system with zones defined for European
and Asian coverage. (Europeans, of course, can think of the UTM system
as a version of the Gauss Kruger system that has been implemented by Americans.)

See the **Universal
Transverse Mercator** projection topic for information
on how systems such as UTM and Gauss Kruger operate. See the
**Transverse
Mercator** projection topic for a note on Carl Friedrich Gauss.

Like UTM or the State Plane Coordinate System, the Gauss Kruger system of projections is a living fossil. It was created mostly as a reflection of the technological limitations of an earlier era. When used with skill as originally intended it continues to function well in expert hands. The problem with the Gauss Kruger system (as with UTM or the State Plane) is that it is frequently misused by inexpert users who do not realize the limitations built into the system.