This topic provides illustrations showing how labels can be placed relative to their defining point locations. Manifold allows placement of labels to positions that are offset from the point location which defines the label. For example, when labels for city names are included in a map that also shows the city points we would like the labels to be offset slightly from whatever symbols indicate the city locations.

In the illustration at left, above, the labels have not been offset. In the illustration at right, they have been offset by the default angle and offset distance.

To offset labels, in the **Symbol**
tab of the Label Style dialog, we check the **Move**
box and then specify the **Angle**
and **offset** distance desired.

There are four ways of specifying offset distance:

**5**means a distance of five points.**5pt**means a distance of five points.**10%**means ten percent of the size parameter applied to the label, so that a label with a size of**36**points would be offset**3.6**points and a label with a size of**72**points would be offset**7.2**points.**5@**is a relative value meaning**5**points more than the size parameter, with**-5@**meaning**5**points less than the size parameter. A label with a size of**36**points given an offset of**-5@**would be shifted by**31**points in the direction of the Angle. Negative offsets resulting in values less than zero mean zero offset.

Some users prefer to use the **%** specification
since that automatically scales the offset to the size of the labels:
Change the label size and the offset changes proportionately.

We can enter whatever numeric value we want for the Angle, but Manifold
will round the resulting angle to place the label at one of eight angle
positions. For example, if we enter an Angle value between
22 and 67 the resulting label placement will be the same as if we entered
**45** as the Angle.

To keep life simple and to avoid confusing anybody who has to work with our projects months or years after we have created them, most Manifold users will use rounded values only, as shown in the illustrations below.

Manifold also allows using the negative number equivalents, to make
it easier to remember where we want to put a label: It's easy to remember
**45** degrees as the upper right
position, and for most people easier to remember **-45**
instead of **315** as the upper left
position.

We can illustrate how labels are placed based on the **Angle**
specified using the diagram below.

The illustration shows a label using a box. The **Move**
box has not yet been checked in the **Symbol**
tab, so the label appears in the same location as the point which defines
the label. The illustration shows the point which defines
the label as a green dot.

If we check the **Move** box and
then use an **Angle** of **270** the
illustration shows how the label will appear to the left of the green
dot. Entering any Angle between 247 and 292 would have the same effect,
since all values in that range will be rounded to **270**.
If we prefer, we could use an **Angle**
of **-90** if we find that easier
to remember than **270**.

Entering an **Angle** of **315** will position the label
above and to the left of the defining point location. Any Angle
value between 292 and 337 will get rounded to **315**
and have the same effect. If we prefer, we could enter **-45** if we find that easier
to remember than **315**.

An **Angle** value of **0**
positions the label directly above the defining point location. This
is the "due North" position.

An **Angle** value of **45
**positions the label above and to the right of the defining point
location.

An **Angle** value of **90**
positions the label directly to the right of the defining point
location, the "due East" position.

An **Angle** value of **135**
positions the label below and to the right of the defining point location.
**135** is the default
Angle. Using **135**
as an Angle produces a good, legible, offset effect in most maps.

An **Angle** value of **180**
positions the label directly below the defining point location. This
is the "due South" position.

An **Angle** value of **225**
positions the label below and to the left of the defining point location.
If we like, we can use **-135**,
which is easy to remember since **135**
is the default Angle and is already entered into the Angle box when we
first check the **Move** box.

We can apply the above settings in our example map of cities in France
to see how various Angles work in real life. In this example
map, the **Cities Labels** layer
contains layers that use the **Name**
field of points in the **Cities**
layer to provide the name of the city.

If we do not check the **Move**
box, no offset is applied. Labels appear at the same location as
their defining points.

We can check the **Move**
box and choose an **Angle**
of **0** and an offset
distance of **10** points.

That positions the labels directly above the defining point location.

Changing the Angle to **180**...

... positions the labels directly below the defining point location, in the "due South" position.

Choosing an **Angle** of **270** (or
the equivalent **-90**) positions
the labels to the left of the points.

Choosing an **Angle** of **90** positions
the labels to the right of the points.

Using an **Angle** of **45**
positions the labels above and to the right of the points; however, using
an **offset** of **10**
points positions the labels too far away from the points.

To illustrate an **Angle** of **135** we will use a smaller **offset** of only **3**
points.

An **Angle** of **135**
is the default, positioning the labels below and to the right of their
defining point locations. Using an **offset**
of **3** points, also the default,
keeps the labels closer to the points.

Choosing an **Angle** of **225** (or
the equivalent **-135**) positions
the labels below and to the left of the points.

To show placement above and to the left we will enter **-45** for
the **Angle** and we
will increase the **offset**
slightly to **5 **points.

Using **-45** for the **Angle**
is equivalent to using **315**.
It places labels above and to the left of the points.

**Rounding** - Angles of 360 or
greater are flattened to **0**. Future
builds may provide a more quantized way of choosing Angle values, instead
of allowing values like 31 or 37 simply forcing all values between 15
and 45 to **30**, for example.

**Just one number to remember:
135** - It's easy to remember
what numbers to use for Angle to place label text. The key is using
negative numbers for hard-to-remember locations. Everybody can remember
placing a label at 45 degrees
to put it at the top right, and it is just as easy to remember -45 degrees to put the label in the top
left. Likewise, it is easy to remember 0
for above the point and 180
for below the point and 90 degrees
to the right of the point. If remembering 270
for due West, that is, to the left of the point is not easy, then use
-90.

That leaves just one number, 135, to remember, for the lower right position. That one is easy to remember because it is the default, already loaded into the dialog for when we check the box to offset a label. For lower left, use -135.

Choosing 135 as the Angle with 3 points as the offset is using default settings:

Many maps will have good legibility and a pleasant appearance when using default settings:

**Example:
Change Point Style** - Using new **Style** pane controls to change point
style, either very rapidly one property at a time, or using the total
Style button to compose a new style with changes to several properties
at once.

**Example:
Style Pane Quickstart** - A tutorial introduction to using the
**Style**
pane to apply color, symbology, size and rotation to areas, lines and
points in drawings.

**Example:
Format a Drawing using the Style Pane** - In this example we
provide a first, step by step look at how to format areas in a drawing
using the **Style**
pane. We can specify the same formatting for all areas or use a
field to automatically set formatting, a process usually known as *thematic formatting*.

**Example:
Format the Size of City Points by Population** - A common GIS
task is to format the size of points in a drawing based on some value.
For example, the size of points that represent cities might be formatted
based on the value of the city's population, with cities that have larger
populations being marked by larger point icons. This is an example
of thematic formatting and is easy to do using the Style pane.