Templates which appear in the Transform pane depend upon the context in which the pane is applied, as well as the data type of the field upon which the template will operate.
In the lists below what determines where a template is listed is the data type of the result of the template, that is data type of the target field. For example, the Equal template gives a Boolean result of TRUE or FALSE depending on whether the two fields it compares are the same or not. It requires a boolean type of target field to store that Boolean result, but the two fields it compares could be any type. For example, it could see if two nvarchar string fields are the same or not, or if two numeric fields have the same value or not.
Because drawings are created from tables, when a drawing has the focus the fields available in the Transform pane will be those in the drawing's table. Choosing a field other than a geom field will effectively be the same as using the Transform pane when the drawing's table has the focus, and choosing that same field.
Geom fields are different because some templates operating in the context of drawings that work with geometry can create new tables, while templates that operate on geom fields within tables are restricted to that table. Therefore there are fewer templates for geom fields in tables than for geometry in drawings.
Most templates in the Transform pane take their source values from a source field and put the result of what the template does into a target field. If we make the source field the same as the target field then that becomes an operation on the same field, an edit "in place." For example, Absolute Value applied using the same source and target field will change all negative values in that field into positive values. Choosing the Equal template and specifying the same field for both source fields will, of course, always result in a Boolean value of TRUE or 1.
Instead of saying "first things first" computer people might say "zeroeth things zeroeth." Templates that count steps, such as the character position in a string, use counting that starts with zero: 0, 1, 2, 3, and so on. The first position, such as the first character in a string, is position 0. The second character is in position 1 and so on.
When specifying values in option boxes, such as for source fields or comparisons, we can usually either choose fields of appropriate data types from the pull-down list or we can specify fixed values manually to use for all records. When doing the latter, we use SQL nomenclature for specifying values. For example, datetime values are enclosed in # characters as in #12/15/2016 12:00:00# and strings are enclosed in single quote ' characters as in 'Eccentricity'. Numbers cannot start with a decimal point but must have a zero before the decimal point for decimal fractions, as in 0.023.
Tech Tip: A totally cool thing about the Transform pane is that we can write SQL expressions into the combo boxes that appear for various templates. Most combo boxes will allow us to choose a field from a pull down list of fields of the appropriate type. We can also enter a fixed value like a number or a string. But we can also enter an SQL expression using the table's fields, for example, like the COALESCE(Status, '') expression used in the source field combo box in the Concatenate template example for text fields.
Everything Math - For a handy reference to anything in mathematics, see the Wolfram MathWorld site. Thank you Wolfram!
Transform Templates - Drawings
Transform Templates - Images
Transform Templates - Binary
Transform Templates - Boolean
Transform Templates - Datetime
Transform Templates - Geom
Transform Templates - Numeric
Transform Templates - Text
Transform Templates - Tile
Transform: Center and Centroids
Transform: Escape Templates
Transform: Overlay Topology
Transform: Voronoi Diagrams